3.4.3 Interior Lighting

The building descriptors in this section are provided for each lighting system. Typically a space will have only one lighting system, but in some cases, it could have two or more. Examples include a general and task lighting system in offices or hotel multi-purpose rooms that have lighting systems for different functions.

Regulated Interior Lighting Power
Applicability All projects
Definition Total connected lighting power for all regulated interior lighting power. This includes the loads for lamps and ballasts.
Units W/ft²
Input Restrictions As designed. The connected power should be cross-referenced to a space type and to the construction documents
Baseline Rules

With the building classification method, use the product of the lighting power density for the building classification from Appendix B and the floor area of the space.

With the space-by-space method, use the product of the lighting power densities for the space-by-space from Appendix B and the floor areas for the corresponding spaces.

Non-Regulated Interior Lighting Power
Applicability All projects
Definition

Power for the following lighting equipment and applications are exempt from the baseline standards, provided they are controlled by an independent control device:

  1. Display or accent lighting that is an essential element for the function performed in galleries, museums, and monuments.
  2. Lighting that is integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by its manufacturer.
  3. Lighting specifically designed for medical or dental procedures and lighting integral to medical equipment.
  4. Lighting integral to both open and glass enclosed refrigerator and freezer cases.
  5. Lighting integral to food warming and food preparation equipment.
  6. Lighting for plant growth or maintenance.
  7. Lighting in spaces specifically designed for use by the visually impaired.
  8. Lighting in retail display windows, provided the display area is enclosed by ceiling-height partitions.
  9. Lighting in interior spaces that have been specifically designated as registered historic landmark interiors.
  10. Lighting that is an integral part of advertising or directional signage.
  11. Exit signs
  12. Lighting that is for sale or lighting educational demonstration systems.
  13. Lighting for theatrical purposes including performance, stage, motion picture or television production.
  14. Lighting for television broadcasting in sporting activity areas.
  15. Casino gaming areas.
  16. Furniture mounted supplemental task lighting that is controlled by automatic shut-off and local control (added in ASHRAE 90.1-2007).

In addition, lighting is exempt that is specifically designated as required by a health or life safety statute, ordinance, or regulation for reasons of safety or security.

Emergency lighting that is automatically off during normal building operation is not considered.

Units W/ft²
Input Restrictions As designed. The non-regulated lighting power should be cross-referenced to the type of exception and to the construction documents. The default for non-regulated lighting power is zero.
Baseline Rules The non-regulated interior lighting in the baseline building shall be the same as the proposed design.
Lighting Schedules
Applicability All projects
Definition Schedule of operation for interior lighting power used to adjust the energy use of lighting systems on an hourly basis to reflect time-dependent patterns of lighting usage. Different schedules may be defined for different lighting circuits, depending on the capabilities of the software.
Units Data structure: schedule, fractional
Input Restrictions The lighting schedule is prescribed for tax deductions. The lighting schedule is a default for green building ratings and Design to Earn ENERGY STAR. For tax deductions, an appropriate schedule from Appendix C Tables 12-16 for the California 2005 ACM shall be used. For green building ratings and Design to Earn ENERGY STAR, the default schedules are presented in Appendix C.
Baseline Rules The baseline building shall use the same lighting schedules as the proposed design. The only exception to this rule is when the proposed design has a task/ambient lighting system. In this case the proposed design task lighting system may be controlled on a different schedule and the proposed design schedule proposed for the ambient lighting system is used for all the lighting in the baseline building.
Retail Display Lighting Power
Applicability Display lighting in retail display and other space-by-space classifications
Definition

Display lighting is special lighting to highlight merchandise. Its purpose is to enhance the visual appearance of the merchandise and not to provide lighting for a visual task. Display lighting is treated as use-it-or-lose-it in ASHRAE Standard 90.1. To qualify for display lighting, the lighting must be separately controlled from the general lighting.

 

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 defines four categories of display lighting:

  • Retail Area 1 (all other)
  • Retail Area 2 (vehicles, sporting goods)
  • Retail area 3 (furniture clothing cosmetics)
  • Retail area 4 (jewelry, crystal, china).
Units W or W/ft²
Input Restrictions As designed. The default for lighting power for retail display wattage is 0.0 watts. When display lighting is entered in the software, its purpose shall be defined (see the categories above in the definitions section).
Baseline Rules Baseline building lighting power is the lesser of proposed design power or the allowed power. The allowed lighting power is defined as the floor area  of the retail display times the allowances in [bookref id="lighting-power-allowances-for-retail-display-lighting"].

[table title="Lighting Power Allowances for Retail Display Lighting" id="lighting-power-allowances-for-retail-display-lighting"]

  ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007  
  Category Allowed Power (W/ft²)
  Retail Area 1 1.0
  Retail Area 2 1.7
  Retail Area 3 2.6
  Retail Area 4 4.2
Decorative Lighting Power
Applicability All projects that have decorative lighting and are rated using the space-by-space method
Definition

Decorative lighting includes wall sconces, chandeliers and other decorative lighting that is provided for purposes other than illuminating visual tasks. The baseline standards treat this lighting as use-it-or-lose-it.

Units W or W/ft2
Input Restrictions As designed. The default for decorative lighting power is 0.0 watts/ft2. When using the space-by-space method, the user may input the power for qualifying decorative lighting using the decorative lighting power descriptor and cross-referencing the construction documents.
Baseline Rules For the space-by-space method, decorative lighting power in the baseline building is equal to the lesser of the actual wattage of decorative lighting specified for the proposed design or 1.0 W/ft2.
Lighting Power for VDT Viewing
Applicability Tax deductions only (ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 baseline)
Definition

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 provided additional lighting in spaces that are intended for use with video display terminals (VDT). This special allowance was eliminated with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 and only applies for the purpose of calculating tax deductions.

In order for a space to qualify for the special allowance, the specified luminaires must have special optical characteristics that direct most of the light down and minimize light cast to the sides. Specifically, a qualifying luminaire must serve a VDT viewing task and provide a maximum luminance measured from the vertical of 80 candelas/ft2 at 65 degrees, 33 candelas/ft2 75 degrees and 17 candelas/ft2 at 85 degrees or greater.

Units W/ft2
Input Restrictions As designed. The default for lighting power for VDT viewing is 0.0 watts/ft2 . The user may input qualifying lighting power for qualifying areas with cross-references to lighting schedules and spaces on the construction documents. A cut-sheet tabulating the candela distribution of the luminaires shall be provided.
Baseline Rules The allowed lighting power for qualifying spaces is increased by 0.35 W/ft2 from the allowed values in Appendix B.

Light Heat Gain Distribution

Applicability All projects
Definition

The distribution of the heat generated by the lighting system that is directed to the space, the plenum, the HVAC return air, or to other locations. This input is a function of the luminaire type and location. Luminaires recessed into a return air plenum contribute more of their heat to the plenum or the return air stream if the plenum is used for return air; while pendant mounted fixtures hanging in the space contribute more of their heat to the space. Common luminaire type/space configurations are listed in Table 3, Chapter 18, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals, summarized in [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] below. Typically the data will be linked to list of common luminaire configurations similar to [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] so that the user chooses a luminaire type category and heat gain is automatically distributed to the appropriate locations.

This input may also be used to approximate the benefit of displacement ventilation (see Chapter 7).

Units List (of luminaire types) or data structure consisting of a series of decimal fractions that assign heat gain to various locations.
Input Restrictions Default values listed in [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] shall be used as a default when the luminaire categories apply. Values within the ranges of [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] may be used when following the rules in the 2009 HOF. Other values may be used when manufacturers’ literature and/or testing data is available, and adequate documentation is provided to the rating authority.
Where lighting fixtures having different heat venting characteristics are used within a single space, the wattage weighted average heat-to-return-air fraction shall be used.
Baseline Rules The baseline building shall use the above referenced defaults.

[table title="Light Heat Gain Parameters for Typical Operating Conditions" id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"]
Source: 3, Table 3, Chapter 18, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals

Luminaire Category Space Fraction Radiative Fraction
Recessed fluorescent luminaire without lens 0.64 to 0.74 (default 0.69) 0.48 to 0.68 (default 0.58)
Recessed fluorescent luminaire with lens 0.40 to 0.50 (default 0.45) 0.61 to 0.73 (default 0.67)
Downlight compact fluorescent luminaire 0.12 to 0.24 (default 0.18) 0.95 to 1.00 (default 0.97)
Downlight incandescent luminaire 0.70 to 0.80 (default 0.75) 0.95 to 1.00 (default 0.97)
Non-in-ceiling fluorescent luminaire 1.0 (default 1.0) 0.50 to 0.57 (default 0.53)
Power Adjustment Factors (PAF)
Applicability All projects
Definition Automatic controls that are not already required by the baseline standard and which reduce lighting power more or less uniformly over the day can be modeled as power adjustment factors. Power adjustment factors represent the percent reduction in lighting power that will approximate the effect of the control. Models account for such controls by adjusting the installed power by (1 – PAF). 
The types of controls that are recognized for credit are listed in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, Appendix G, Table G3.2 and shown below in [bookref id="power-adjustment-factors"].
Units List: control types (see above) linked to PAFs
Input Restrictions As designed
Baseline Rules PAF is zero

[table title="Power Adjustment Factors" id="power-adjustment-factors"]

Automatic Control Device Non-24-hour occupied buildings that are less than 5,000 ft² Other buildings
Programmable timing control 10% 0%
Occupant sensor 15% 10%
Occupant sensor and programmable timing controls 15% 10%
Bi-level parking garage controls1 30% 30%
Bi-level controls in hotel corridors 20% 20%
Scene controller with timeclock 20% 20%
  • 1. Bi-level Smart LED Parking Garage Lighting, Public Interest Energy Research Program IOU Partnership Draft-Case Study
    http://cltc.ucdavis.edu/images/_projects/demonstration/bi_level_smart_led_parking_garage_lighting/pier_demo_uc_csu_bi_level_smart_led_parking_garage_lighting.pdf
90.1-2007

The building descriptors in this section are provided for each lighting system. Typically a space will have only one lighting system, but in some cases, it could have two or more. Examples include a general and task lighting system in offices or hotel multi-purpose rooms that have lighting systems for different functions.

Regulated Interior Lighting Power
Applicability All projects
Definition Total connected lighting power for all regulated interior lighting power. This includes the loads for lamps and ballasts.
Units W/ft²

Input Restrictions

As designed. The connected power should be cross-referenced to a space type and to the construction documents
Baseline Rules

With the building classification method, use the product of the lighting power density for the building classification from Appendix B and the floor area of the space.

With the space-by-space method, use the product of the lighting power densities for the space-by-space from Appendix B and the floor areas for the corresponding spaces.

Non-Regulated Interior Lighting Power
Applicability All projects
Definition

Power for the following lighting equipment and applications are exempt from the baseline standards, provided they are controlled by an independent control device:

  1. Display or accent lighting that is an essential element for the function performed in galleries, museums, and monuments.
  2. Lighting that is integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by its manufacturer.
  3. Lighting specifically designed for medical or dental procedures and lighting integral to medical equipment.
  4. Lighting integral to both open and glass enclosed refrigerator and freezer cases.
  5. Lighting integral to food warming and food preparation equipment.
  6. Lighting for plant growth or maintenance.
  7. Lighting in spaces specifically designed for use by the visually impaired.
  8. Lighting in retail display windows, provided the display area is enclosed by ceiling-height partitions.
  9. Lighting in interior spaces that have been specifically designated as registered historic landmark interiors.
  10. Lighting that is an integral part of advertising or directional signage.
  11. Exit signs
  12. Lighting that is for sale or lighting educational demonstration systems.
  13. Lighting for theatrical purposes including performance, stage, motion picture or television production.
  14. Lighting for television broadcasting in sporting activity areas.
  15. Casino gaming areas.
  16. Furniture mounted supplemental task lighting that is controlled by automatic shut-off and local control (added in ASHRAE 90.1-2007).

In addition, lighting is exempt that is specifically designated as required by a health or life safety statute, ordinance, or regulation for reasons of safety or security.

Emergency lighting that is automatically off during normal building operation is not considered.

Units W/ft²
Input Restrictions As designed. The non-regulated lighting power should be cross-referenced to the type of exception and to the construction documents. The default for non-regulated lighting power is zero.
Baseline Rules The non-regulated interior lighting in the baseline building shall be the same as the proposed design.
Lighting Schedules
Applicability All projects
Definition Schedule of operation for interior lighting power used to adjust the energy use of lighting systems on an hourly basis to reflect time-dependent patterns of lighting usage. Different schedules may be defined for different lighting circuits, depending on the capabilities of the software.
Units Data structure: schedule, fractional
Input Restrictions The lighting schedule is default for green building ratings and Design to Earn ENERGY STAR. For green building ratings and Design to Earn ENERGY STAR, the default schedules are presented in Appendix C.
Baseline Rules The baseline building shall use the same lighting schedules as the proposed design. The only exception to this rule is when the proposed design has a task/ambient lighting system. In this case the proposed design task lighting system may be controlled on a different schedule and the proposed design schedule proposed for the ambient lighting system is used for all the lighting in the baseline building.
Retail Display Lighting Power
Applicability Display lighting in retail display and other space-by-space classifications
Definition

Display lighting is special lighting to highlight merchandise. Its purpose is to enhance the visual appearance of the merchandise and not to provide lighting for a visual task. Display lighting is treated as use-it-or-lose-it in ASHRAE Standard 90.1. To qualify for display lighting, the lighting must be separately controlled from the general lighting.

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 defines four categories of display lighting:

  • Retail Area 1 (all other)
  • Retail Area 2 (vehicles, sporting goods)
  • Retail area 3 (furniture clothing cosmetics)
  • Retail area 4 (jewelry, crystal, china).

 

Units W or W/ft²
Input Restrictions As designed. The default for lighting power for retail display wattage is 0.0 watts. When display lighting is entered in the software, its purpose shall be defined (see the categories above in the definitions section).
Baseline Rules Baseline building lighting power is the lesser of proposed design power or the allowed power. The allowed lighting power is defined as the floor area  of the retail display times the allowances in [bookref id="lighting-power-allowances-for-retail-display-lighting"].

[table title="Lighting Power Allowances for Retail Display Lighting" id="lighting-power-allowances-for-retail-display-lighting"]

Category ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 Allowed Power (W/ft²)
Retail Area 1 1.0
Retail Area 2 1.7
Retail Area 3 2.6
Retail Area 4 4.2
Decorative Lighting Power
Applicability All projects that have decorative lighting and are rated using the space-by-space method
Definition

Decorative lighting includes wall sconces, chandeliers and other decorative lighting that is provided for purposes other than illuminating visual tasks. The baseline standards treat this lighting as use-it-or-lose-it.

Units W or W/ft2
Input Restrictions As designed. The default for decorative lighting power is 0.0 watts/ft2. When using the space-by-space method, the user may input the power for qualifying decorative lighting using the decorative lighting power descriptor and cross-referencing the construction documents.
Baseline Rules For the space-by-space method, decorative lighting power in the baseline building is equal to the lesser of the actual wattage of decorative lighting specified for the proposed design or 1.0 W/ft2.
Light Heat Gain Distribution
Applicability All projects
Definition

The distribution of the heat generated by the lighting system that is directed to the space, the plenum, the HVAC return air, or to other locations. This input is a function of the luminaire type and location. Luminaires recessed into a return air plenum contribute more of their heat to the plenum or the return air stream if the plenum is used for return air; while pendant mounted fixtures hanging in the space contribute more of their heat to the space. Common luminaire type/space configurations are listed in Table 3, Chapter 18, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals, summarized in [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] below. Typically the data will be linked to list of common luminaire configurations similar to [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] so that the user chooses a luminaire type category and heat gain is automatically distributed to the appropriate locations.

This input may also be used to approximate the benefit of displacement ventilation (see Chapter 7).

Units List (of luminaire types) or data structure consisting of a series of decimal fractions that assign heat gain to various locations.
Input Restrictions Default values listed in [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] shall be used as a default when the luminaire categories apply. Values within the ranges of [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] may be used when following the rules in the 2009 HOF. Other values may be used when manufacturers’ literature and/or testing data is available, and adequate documentation is provided to the rating authority.
Where lighting fixtures having different heat venting characteristics are used within a single space, the wattage weighted average heat-to-return-air fraction shall be used.
Baseline Rules The baseline building shall use the above referenced defaults.

[table title="Light Heat Gain Parameters for Typical Operating Conditions" id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"]
Source: 3, Table 3, Chapter 18, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals

Luminaire Category Space Fraction Radiative Fraction
Recessed fluorescent luminaire without lens 0.64 to 0.74 (default 0.69) 0.48 to 0.68 (default 0.58)
Recessed fluorescent luminaire with lens 0.40 to 0.50 (default 0.45) 0.61 to 0.73 (default 0.67)
Downlight compact fluorescent luminaire 0.12 to 0.24 (default 0.18) 0.95 to 1.00 (default 0.97)
Downlight incandescent luminaire 0.70 to 0.80 (default 0.75) 0.95 to 1.00 (default 0.97)
Non-in-ceiling fluorescent luminaire 1.0 (default 1.0) 0.50 to 0.57 (default 0.53)
Power Adjustment Factors (PAF)
Applicability All projects
Definition Automatic controls that are not already required by the baseline standard and which reduce lighting power more or less uniformly over the day can be modeled as power adjustment factors. Power adjustment factors represent the percent reduction in lighting power that will approximate the effect of the control. Models account for such controls by adjusting the installed power by (1 – PAF). 
The types of controls that are recognized for credit are listed in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, Appendix G, Table G3.2 and shown below in [bookref id="power-adjustment-factors"].
Units List: control types (see above) linked to PAFs
Input Restrictions As designed
Baseline Rules PAF is zero

[table title="Power Adjustment Factors" id="power-adjustment-factors"]

Automatic Control Device Non-24-hour occupied buildings that are less than 5,000 ft² Other buildings
Programmable timing control 10% 0%
Occupant sensor 15% 10%
Occupant sensor and programmable timing controls 15% 10%

Bi-level parking garage controls1

30% 30%
Bi-level controls in hotel corridors 20% 20%
Scene controller with timeclock 20% 20%
  • 1. Bi-level Smart LED Parking Garage Lighting, Public Interest Energy Research Program IOU Partnership Draft-Case Study http://cltc.ucdavis.edu/images/_projects/demonstration/bi_level_smart_led_parking_garage_lighting/pier_demo_uc_csu_bi_level_smart_led_parking_garage_lighting.pdf
90.1-2010

The building descriptors in this section are provided for each lighting system. Typically a space will have only one lighting system, but in some cases, it could have two or more. Examples include a general and task lighting system in offices or hotel multi-purpose rooms that have lighting systems for different functions.

Regulated Interior Lighting Power
Applicability All projects
Definition Total connected lighting power for all regulated interior lighting power. This includes the loads for lamps and ballasts.
Units W/ft²

Input Restrictions

As designed. The connected power should be cross-referenced to a space type and to the construction documents
Baseline Rules

With the building classification method, use the product of the lighting power density for the building classification from Appendix B and the floor area of the space.

With the space-by-space method, use the product of the lighting power densities for the space-by-space from Appendix B and the floor areas for the corresponding spaces.

When the room cavity ratio (RCR) of a space exceeds to thresholds listed in Appendix B, the allowed lighting power for the space may be increased by 20%. Corridors and transition spaces less than 8 ft in width quality for the 20% increase in allowed power.

Room Cavity Ratio (RCR)
Applicability All projects
Definition

A factor that characterizes room configuration as a ration between the walls and ceiling and is based on room dimensions as follows:


RCR = 2.5 x Room Perimeter / WorkPlane Height
Where WorkPlane Height = the mounting height of the luminaires less the workplane height (typically 30 in.)


The RCR us used to adjust the allowed interior lighting power for small or constrained spaces.

Units ft²

Input Restrictions

As designed. Default value is no adjustment to the allowed lighting power, e.g. the RCR is less than the threshold.
Baseline Rules Not applicable for the baseline building, although Appendix B provides a threshold above which the allowed power may be increased by 20%.
Non-Regulated Interior Lighting Power
Applicability All projects
Definition

Power for the following lighting equipment and applications are exempt from the baseline standards, provided they are controlled by an independent control device:

  1. Display or accent lighting that is an essential element for the function performed in galleries, museums, and monuments.
  2. Lighting that is integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by its manufacturer.
  3. Lighting specifically designed for medical or dental procedures and lighting integral to medical equipment.
  4. Lighting integral to both open and glass enclosed refrigerator and freezer cases.
  5. Lighting integral to food warming and food preparation equipment.
  6. Lighting for plant growth or maintenance.
  7. Lighting in spaces specifically designed for use by the visually impaired.
  8. Lighting in retail display windows, provided the display area is enclosed by ceiling-height partitions.
  9. Lighting in interior spaces that have been specifically designated as registered historic landmark interiors.
  10. Lighting that is an integral part of advertising or directional signage.
  11. Exit signs
  12. Lighting that is for sale or lighting educational demonstration systems.
  13. Lighting for theatrical purposes including performance, stage, motion picture or television production.
  14. Lighting for television broadcasting in sporting activity areas.
  15. Casino gaming areas.
  16. Furniture mounted supplemental task lighting that is controlled by automatic shut-off and local control (added in ASHRAE 90.1-2007).

In addition, lighting is exempt that is specifically designated as required by a health or life safety statute, ordinance, or regulation for reasons of safety or security.

Emergency lighting that is automatically off during normal building operation is not considered.

Units W/ft²
Input Restrictions As designed. The non-regulated lighting power should be cross-referenced to the type of exception and to the construction documents. The default for non-regulated lighting power is zero.
Baseline Rules The non-regulated interior lighting in the baseline building shall be the same as the proposed design.
Lighting Schedules
Applicability All projects
Definition Schedule of operation for interior lighting power used to adjust the energy use of lighting systems on an hourly basis to reflect time-dependent patterns of lighting usage. Different schedules may be defined for different lighting circuits, depending on the capabilities of the software.
Units Data structure: schedule, fractional
Input Restrictions The lighting schedule is default for green building ratings and Design to Earn ENERGY STAR. For green building ratings and Design to Earn ENERGY STAR, the default schedules are presented in Appendix C.
Baseline Rules The baseline building shall use the same lighting schedules as the proposed design. The only exception to this rule is when the proposed design has a task/ambient lighting system. In this case the proposed design task lighting system may be controlled on a different schedule and the proposed design schedule proposed for the ambient lighting system is used for all the lighting in the baseline building.
Retail Display Lighting Power
Applicability Display lighting in retail display and other space-by-space classifications
Definition

Display lighting is special lighting to highlight merchandise. Its purpose is to enhance the visual appearance of the merchandise and not to provide lighting for a visual task. Display lighting is treated as use-it-or-lose-it in ASHRAE Standard 90.1. To qualify for display lighting, the lighting must be separately controlled from the general lighting.

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 defines four categories of display lighting:

  • Retail Area 1 (all other)
  • Retail Area 2 (vehicles, sporting goods)
  • Retail area 3 (furniture clothing cosmetics)
  • Retail area 4 (jewelry, crystal, china).

 

Units W or W/ft²
Input Restrictions As designed. The default for lighting power for retail display wattage is 0.0 watts. When display lighting is entered in the software, its purpose shall be defined (see the categories above in the definitions section).
Baseline Rules Baseline building lighting power is the lesser of proposed design power or the allowed power. The allowed lighting power is defined as the floor area  of the retail display times the allowances in Table 6.4.2-1.

Table 6.4.3-1: Lighting Power Allowances for Retail Display Lighting

Category   ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Allowed Power (W/ft²)
Retail Area 1   0.6
Retail Area 2   0.6
Retail Area 3   1.4
Retail Area 4   2.5
Decorative Lighting Power
Applicability All projects that have decorative lighting and are rated using the space-by-space method
Definition

Decorative lighting includes wall sconces, chandeliers and other decorative lighting that is provided for purposes other than illuminating visual tasks. The baseline standards treat this lighting as use-it-or-lose-it.

Units W or W/ft2
Input Restrictions As designed. The default for decorative lighting power is 0.0 watts/ft2. When using the space-by-space method, the user may input the power for qualifying decorative lighting using the decorative lighting power descriptor and cross-referencing the construction documents.
Baseline Rules For the space-by-space method, decorative lighting power in the baseline building is equal to the lesser of the actual wattage of decorative lighting specified for the proposed design or 1.0 W/ft2.
Light Heat Gain Distribution
Applicability All projects
Definition

The distribution of the heat generated by the lighting system that is directed to the space, the plenum, the HVAC return air, or to other locations. This input is a function of the luminaire type and location. Luminaires recessed into a return air plenum contribute more of their heat to the plenum or the return air stream if the plenum is used for return air; while pendant mounted fixtures hanging in the space contribute more of their heat to the space. Common luminaire type/space configurations are listed in Table 3, Chapter 18, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals, summarized in Table 6.4.3-2 below. Typically the data will be linked to list of common luminaire configurations similar to Table 6.4.3-2 so that the user chooses a luminaire type category and heat gain is automatically distributed to the appropriate locations.

This input may also be used to approximate the benefit of displacement ventilation (see Chapter 7).

Units List (of luminaire types) or data structure consisting of a series of decimal fractions that assign heat gain to various locations.
Input Restrictions Default values listed in Table 6.4.3-2 shall be used as a default when the luminaire categories apply. Values within the ranges of Table 6.4.3-2 may be used when following the rules in the 2009 HOF. Other values may be used when manufacturers’ literature and/or testing data is available, and adequate documentation is provided to the rating authority.
Where lighting fixtures having different heat venting characteristics are used within a single space, the wattage weighted average heat-to-return-air fraction shall be used.
Baseline Rules The baseline building shall use the above referenced defaults.

Table 6.4.3-2: Light Heat Gain Parameters for Typical Operating Conditions
Source: 3, Table 3, Chapter 18, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals

Luminaire Category Space Fraction Radiative Fraction
Recessed fluorescent luminaire without lens 0.64 to 0.74 (default 0.69) 0.48 to 0.68 (default 0.58)
Recessed fluorescent luminaire with lens 0.40 to 0.50 (default 0.45) 0.61 to 0.73 (default 0.67)
Downlight compact fluorescent luminaire 0.12 to 0.24 (default 0.18) 0.95 to 1.00 (default 0.97)
Downlight incandescent luminaire 0.70 to 0.80 (default 0.75) 0.95 to 1.00 (default 0.97)
Non-in-ceiling fluorescent luminaire 1.0 (default 1.0) 0.50 to 0.57 (default 0.53)
Power Adjustment Factors (PAF)
Applicability All projects
Definition Automatic controls that are not already required by the baseline standard and which reduce lighting power more or less uniformly over the day can be modeled as power adjustment factors. Power adjustment factors represent the percent reduction in lighting power that will approximate the effect of the control. Models account for such controls by adjusting the installed power by (1 – PAF). 
The types of controls that are recognized for credit are listed in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010, Appendix G, Table G3.2 and shown below in Table 6.4.3-3.
Units List: control types (see above) linked to PAFs
Input Restrictions As designed
Baseline Rules PAF is zero

Table 6.4.3-3: Power Adjustment Factors

Automatic Control Device Non-24-hour occupied buildings that are less than 5,000 ft² Other buildings
Programmable timing control 10% 0%
Occupant sensor 15% 10%
Occupant sensor and programmable timing controls 15% 10%
Bi-level controls in hotel corridors 20% 20%
Scene controller with timeclock 20% 20%
90.1-2016 BM

The building descriptors in this section are provided for each lighting system. Typically a space will have only one lighting system, but in some cases, it could have two or more. Examples include a general and task lighting system in offices or hotel multi-purpose rooms that have lighting systems for different functions. It may also be desirable to define different lighting systems for spaces that are daylighted and those that are not.

The lighting power for the baseline building is determined through either the building area method or the space-by-space method. This is determined by the Building Classification building descriptor under Baseline Standard. Either one method or the other must be used for the entire model.

Regulated Interior Lighting Power

Applicability

All projects

Definition

Total connected lighting power for all regulated interior lighting power. This includes the loads for lamps and ballasts.

Units

W/ft². This input will generally be derived from other inputs such as a luminaire count and luminaire schedule.

Input Restrictions

As designed. The connected power should be cross-referenced to a space type and to the construction documents

Baseline Rules

ighting power in the baseline building shall be the Interior lighting power allowance (ILPA) determined through the procedures in the performance rating method (Appendix G) of Standard 90.1-2013-BM. The ILPA is the power needed to provide a uniform level of illumination throughout an area, exclusive of any provision for special visual tasks or decorative effect, exclusive of daylighting, and also known as ambient lighting. 

With the building area classification method, use the product of the lighting power density for the building classification from Appendix B and the floor area.

With the space-by-space method, use the product of the lighting power densities for the space-by-space from Appendix B and the floor areas for the corresponding spaces.

 

Non-Regulated Interior Lighting Power

Applicability

All projects

Definition

Power for the following lighting equipment and applications are exempt from the baseline standards, provided they are controlled by an independent control device:

a.Display or accent lighting that is an essential element for the function performed in galleries, museums, and monuments.

b.Lighting that is integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by its manufacturer.

c.Lighting specifically designed for medical or dental procedures and lighting integral to medical equipment.

d.Lighting integral to both open and glass enclosed refrigerator and freezer cases.

e.Lighting integral to food warming and food preparation equipment.

f.Lighting for plant growth or maintenance.

g.Lighting in spaces specifically designed for use by occupants with special lighting needs including visual impairment and other medical and age-related issues.

h.Lighting in retail display windows, provided the display area is enclosed by ceiling-height partitions.

i.Lighting in interior spaces that have been specifically designated as registered historic landmark interiors.

j.Lighting that is an integral part of advertising or directional signage.

k.Exit signs

l.Lighting that is for sale or lighting educational demonstration systems.

m.Lighting for theatrical purposes including performance, stage, film and video.

n.Lighting for television broadcasting in sporting activity areas.

o.Casino gaming areas.

p.Furniture mounted supplemental task lighting that is controlled by automatic shut-off and complies with the Additional Control requirements in Section 9 of Standard 90.1.

n addition, lighting is exempt that is specifically designated as required by a health or life safety statute, ordinance, or regulation for reasons of safety or security.

Emergency lighting that is automatically off during normal building operation is not considered.

Units

W/ft²

Input Restrictions

As designed. The non-regulated lighting power should be cross-referenced to the type of exception and to the construction documents. The default for non-regulated lighting power is zero.

Baseline Rules

The non-regulated interior lighting power in the baseline building shall be the same as the proposed design.

 

Lighting Schedules

Applicability

All projects

Definition

Schedule of operation for interior lighting power used to adjust the energy use of lighting systems on an hourly basis to reflect time-dependent patterns of lighting usage. Different schedules may be defined for different lighting circuits, depending on the capabilities of the software.

Units

Data structure: schedule, fractional

Input Restrictions

The default schedules are presented in Appendix B and Appendix C.

Baseline Rules

The baseline building shall use the same lighting schedules as the proposed design with the following exceptions:

  • When the proposed design has a task/ambient lighting system, the proposed design task lighting system may be controlled on a different schedule and the proposed design schedule proposed for the ambient lighting system is used for all the lighting in the baseline building.
  • When the proposed design has daylighting and analyzed using a procedure that results in a modified lighting schedule.

 

Light Heat Gain Distribution

Applicability

All projects

Definition

The distribution of the heat generated by the lighting system that is directed to the space, the plenum, the HVAC return air, or to other locations. This input is a function of the luminaire type and location. Luminaires recessed into a return air plenum contribute more of their heat to the plenum or the return air stream if the plenum is used for return air; while pendant mounted fixtures hanging in the space contribute more of their heat to the space. Common luminaire type/space configurations are listed in Table 3, Chapter 18, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals, summarized in Table 3.4.3-1 below. Typically the data will be linked to list of common luminaire configurations similar to Table 3.4.3-1 so that the user chooses a luminaire type category and heat gain is automatically distributed to the appropriate locations.

Units

List (of luminaire types) or data structure consisting of a series of decimal fractions that assign heat gain to various locations.

Input Restrictions

Default values listed in Table 3.4.3-1 shall be used as a default when the luminaire categories apply. Values within the ranges of Table 3.4.3-1 may be used when following the rules in the 2009 HOF. Other values may be used when manufacturers’ literature and/or testing data is available, and adequate documentation is provided to the rating authority. Where lighting fixtures having different heat venting characteristics are used within a single space, the wattage weighted average heat-to-return-air fraction shall be used.

Baseline Rules

The baseline building shall use the above referenced defaults.

Table 3.4.3-1: Light Heat Gain Parameters for Typical Lighting Systems

Source: Based on Table 3, Chapter 18, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals

 

 

Ducted/Direct Return

Plenum Return

Luminaire

Lamp

Space Fraction

Radiative Fraction

Space Fraction

Radiative Fraction

Recessed with Lens

Fluorescent

1.00

0.67

0.45

0.67

Recessed/Downlight

Fluorescent

1.00

0.58

0.69

0.58

CFL

1.00

0.97

0.20

0.97

Incandescent

1.00

0.97

0.75

0.97

LED

1.00

0.97

1.00

0.97

Metal Halide

1.00

0.97

0.75

0.97

Not Recessed

All

1.00

0.54

1.00

0.54

 

 

Power Adjustment Factors (PAF)

Applicability

All projects that use the space-by-space method

Definition

Automatic controls that are not already required by the mandatory requirements of the baseline standard and which reduce lighting power more or less uniformly over the day can be modeled as power adjustment factors (PAF). Power adjustment factors represent the percent reduction in lighting power that approximates the effect of the control. Models account for such controls by adjusting the installed power by (1 – PAF).  For the Standard 90.1-2016 performance rating method, credits are offered only for occupant sensors and only for the spaces listed in COMNET appendix B.

Units

List: control types (see above) linked to PAFs from Appendix B

Input Restrictions

As designed

Baseline Rules

PAF for each space is zero

Building EQ

The building descriptors in this section are provided for each lighting system. Typically a space will have only one lighting system, but in some cases, it could have two or more. Examples include a general and task lighting system in offices or hotel multi-purpose rooms that have lighting systems for different functions.

Regulated Interior Lighting Power
Applicability All projects
Definition Total connected lighting power for all regulated interior lighting power. This includes the loads for lamps and ballasts.
Units W/ft²
Input Restrictions As designed. The connected power should be cross-referenced to a space type and to the construction documents
Non-Regulated Interior Lighting Power
Applicability All projects
Definition

Power for the following lighting equipment and applications are exempt from the baseline standards, provided they are controlled by an independent control device:

  1. Display or accent lighting that is an essential element for the function performed in galleries, museums, and monuments.
  2. Lighting that is integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by its manufacturer.
  3. Lighting specifically designed for medical or dental procedures and lighting integral to medical equipment.
  4. Lighting integral to both open and glass enclosed refrigerator and freezer cases.
  5. Lighting integral to food warming and food preparation equipment.
  6. Lighting for plant growth or maintenance.
  7. Lighting in spaces specifically designed for use by the visually impaired.
  8. Lighting in retail display windows, provided the display area is enclosed by ceiling-height partitions.
  9. Lighting in interior spaces that have been specifically designated as registered historic landmark interiors.
  10. Lighting that is an integral part of advertising or directional signage.
  11. Exit signs
  12. Lighting that is for sale or lighting educational demonstration systems.
  13. Lighting for theatrical purposes including performance, stage, motion picture or television production.
  14. Lighting for television broadcasting in sporting activity areas.
  15. Casino gaming areas.
  16. Furniture mounted supplemental task lighting that is controlled by automatic shut-off and local control (added in ASHRAE 90.1-2007).

In addition, lighting is exempt that is specifically designated as required by a health or life safety statute, ordinance, or regulation for reasons of safety or security.

Emergency lighting that is automatically off during normal building operation is not considered.

Units W/ft²
Input Restrictions As designed. The non-regulated lighting power should be cross-referenced to the type of exception and to the construction documents. The default for non-regulated lighting power is zero.
Lighting Schedules
Applicability All projects
Definition Schedule of operation for interior lighting power used to adjust the energy use of lighting systems on an hourly basis to reflect time-dependent patterns of lighting usage. Different schedules may be defined for different lighting circuits, depending on the capabilities of the software.
Units Data structure: schedule, fractional
Input Restrictions The lighting schedule is a default for green building ratings and Design to Earn ENERGY STAR. For green building ratings and Design to Earn ENERGY STAR, the default schedules are presented in Appendix C.
Retail Display Lighting Power
Applicability Display lighting in retail display and other space-by-space classifications
Definition

Display lighting is special lighting to highlight merchandise. Its purpose is to enhance the visual appearance of the merchandise and not to provide lighting for a visual task. Display lighting is treated as use-it-or-lose-it in ASHRAE Standard 90.1. To qualify for display lighting, the lighting must be separately controlled from the general lighting.

Units W or W/ft²
Input Restrictions As designed. The default for lighting power for retail display wattage is 0.0 watts. When display lighting is entered in the software, its purpose shall be defined (see the categories above in the definitions section).

Light Heat Gain Distribution

Applicability All projects
Definition

The distribution of the heat generated by the lighting system that is directed to the space, the plenum, the HVAC return air, or to other locations. This input is a function of the luminaire type and location. Luminaires recessed into a return air plenum contribute more of their heat to the plenum or the return air stream if the plenum is used for return air; while pendant mounted fixtures hanging in the space contribute more of their heat to the space. Common luminaire type/space configurations are listed in Table 3, Chapter 18, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals, summarized in [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] below. Typically the data will be linked to list of common luminaire configurations similar to [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] so that the user chooses a luminaire type category and heat gain is automatically distributed to the appropriate locations.

This input may also be used to approximate the benefit of displacement ventilation (see Chapter 7).

Units List (of luminaire types) or data structure consisting of a series of decimal fractions that assign heat gain to various locations.
Input Restrictions Default values listed in [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] shall be used as a default when the luminaire categories apply. Values within the ranges of [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] may be used when following the rules in the 2009 HOF. Other values may be used when manufacturers’ literature and/or testing data is available, and adequate documentation is provided to the rating authority.
Where lighting fixtures having different heat venting characteristics are used within a single space, the wattage weighted average heat-to-return-air fraction shall be used.
Baseline Rules The baseline building shall use the above referenced defaults.

[table title="Light Heat Gain Parameters for Typical Operating Conditions" id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"]
Source: 3, Table 3, Chapter 18, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals

Luminaire Category Space Fraction Radiative Fraction
Recessed fluorescent luminaire without lens 0.64 to 0.74 (default 0.69) 0.48 to 0.68 (default 0.58)
Recessed fluorescent luminaire with lens 0.40 to 0.50 (default 0.45) 0.61 to 0.73 (default 0.67)
Downlight compact fluorescent luminaire 0.12 to 0.24 (default 0.18) 0.95 to 1.00 (default 0.97)
Downlight incandescent luminaire 0.70 to 0.80 (default 0.75) 0.95 to 1.00 (default 0.97)
Non-in-ceiling fluorescent luminaire 1.0 (default 1.0) 0.50 to 0.57 (default 0.53)
Power Adjustment Factors (PAF)
Applicability All projects
Definition Automatic controls that are not already required by the baseline standard and which reduce lighting power more or less uniformly over the day can be modeled as power adjustment factors. Power adjustment factors represent the percent reduction in lighting power that will approximate the effect of the control. Models account for such controls by adjusting the installed power by (1 – PAF). 
The types of controls that are recognized for credit are listed in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, Appendix G, Table G3.2 and shown below in [bookref id="power-adjustment-factors"].
Units List: control types (see above) linked to PAFs
Input Restrictions As designed
Baseline Rules PAF is zero

[table title="Power Adjustment Factors" id="power-adjustment-factors"]

Automatic Control Device Non-24-hour occupied buildings that are less than 5,000 ft² Other buildings
Programmable timing control 10% 0%
Occupant sensor 15% 10%
Occupant sensor and programmable timing controls 15% 10%
Bi-level parking garage controls1 30% 30%
Bi-level controls in hotel corridors 20% 20%
Scene controller with timeclock 20% 20%
  • 1. Bi-level Smart LED Parking Garage Lighting, Public Interest Energy Research Program IOU Partnership Draft-Case Study
    http://cltc.ucdavis.edu/images/_projects/demonstration/bi_level_smart_led_parking_garage_lighting/pier_demo_uc_csu_bi_level_smart_led_parking_garage_lighting.pdf
Energy Star

The building descriptors in this section are provided for each lighting system. Typically a space will have only one lighting system, but in some cases, it could have two or more. Examples include a general and task lighting system in offices or hotel multi-purpose rooms that have lighting systems for different functions.

Regulated Interior Lighting Power
Applicability All projects
Definition Total connected lighting power for all regulated interior lighting power. This includes the loads for lamps and ballasts.
Units W/ft²
Input Restrictions As designed. The connected power should be cross-referenced to a space type and to the construction documents
Non-Regulated Interior Lighting Power
Applicability All projects
Definition

Power for the following lighting equipment and applications are exempt from the baseline standards, provided they are controlled by an independent control device:

  1. Display or accent lighting that is an essential element for the function performed in galleries, museums, and monuments.
  2. Lighting that is integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by its manufacturer.
  3. Lighting specifically designed for medical or dental procedures and lighting integral to medical equipment.
  4. Lighting integral to both open and glass enclosed refrigerator and freezer cases.
  5. Lighting integral to food warming and food preparation equipment.
  6. Lighting for plant growth or maintenance.
  7. Lighting in spaces specifically designed for use by the visually impaired.
  8. Lighting in retail display windows, provided the display area is enclosed by ceiling-height partitions.
  9. Lighting in interior spaces that have been specifically designated as registered historic landmark interiors.
  10. Lighting that is an integral part of advertising or directional signage.
  11. Exit signs
  12. Lighting that is for sale or lighting educational demonstration systems.
  13. Lighting for theatrical purposes including performance, stage, motion picture or television production.
  14. Lighting for television broadcasting in sporting activity areas.
  15. Casino gaming areas.
  16. Furniture mounted supplemental task lighting that is controlled by automatic shut-off and local control (added in ASHRAE 90.1-2007).

In addition, lighting is exempt that is specifically designated as required by a health or life safety statute, ordinance, or regulation for reasons of safety or security.

Emergency lighting that is automatically off during normal building operation is not considered.

Units W/ft²
Input Restrictions As designed. The non-regulated lighting power should be cross-referenced to the type of exception and to the construction documents. The default for non-regulated lighting power is zero.
Lighting Schedules
Applicability All projects
Definition Schedule of operation for interior lighting power used to adjust the energy use of lighting systems on an hourly basis to reflect time-dependent patterns of lighting usage. Different schedules may be defined for different lighting circuits, depending on the capabilities of the software.
Units Data structure: schedule, fractional
Input Restrictions The lighting schedule is a default for green building ratings and Design to Earn ENERGY STAR. For green building ratings and Design to Earn ENERGY STAR, the default schedules are presented in Appendix C.
Retail Display Lighting Power
Applicability Display lighting in retail display and other space-by-space classifications
Definition

Display lighting is special lighting to highlight merchandise. Its purpose is to enhance the visual appearance of the merchandise and not to provide lighting for a visual task. Display lighting is treated as use-it-or-lose-it in ASHRAE Standard 90.1. To qualify for display lighting, the lighting must be separately controlled from the general lighting.

Units W or W/ft²
Input Restrictions As designed. The default for lighting power for retail display wattage is 0.0 watts. When display lighting is entered in the software, its purpose shall be defined (see the categories above in the definitions section).

Light Heat Gain Distribution

Applicability All projects
Definition

The distribution of the heat generated by the lighting system that is directed to the space, the plenum, the HVAC return air, or to other locations. This input is a function of the luminaire type and location. Luminaires recessed into a return air plenum contribute more of their heat to the plenum or the return air stream if the plenum is used for return air; while pendant mounted fixtures hanging in the space contribute more of their heat to the space. Common luminaire type/space configurations are listed in Table 3, Chapter 18, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals, summarized in [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] below. Typically the data will be linked to list of common luminaire configurations similar to [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] so that the user chooses a luminaire type category and heat gain is automatically distributed to the appropriate locations.

This input may also be used to approximate the benefit of displacement ventilation (see Chapter 7).

Units List (of luminaire types) or data structure consisting of a series of decimal fractions that assign heat gain to various locations.
Input Restrictions Default values listed in [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] shall be used as a default when the luminaire categories apply. Values within the ranges of [bookref id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"] may be used when following the rules in the 2009 HOF. Other values may be used when manufacturers’ literature and/or testing data is available, and adequate documentation is provided to the rating authority.
Where lighting fixtures having different heat venting characteristics are used within a single space, the wattage weighted average heat-to-return-air fraction shall be used.
Baseline Rules The baseline building shall use the above referenced defaults.

[table title="Light Heat Gain Parameters for Typical Operating Conditions" id="light-heat-gain-parameters-for-typical-operating-conditions"]
Source: 3, Table 3, Chapter 18, 2009 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals

Luminaire Category Space Fraction Radiative Fraction
Recessed fluorescent luminaire without lens 0.64 to 0.74 (default 0.69) 0.48 to 0.68 (default 0.58)
Recessed fluorescent luminaire with lens 0.40 to 0.50 (default 0.45) 0.61 to 0.73 (default 0.67)
Downlight compact fluorescent luminaire 0.12 to 0.24 (default 0.18) 0.95 to 1.00 (default 0.97)
Downlight incandescent luminaire 0.70 to 0.80 (default 0.75) 0.95 to 1.00 (default 0.97)
Non-in-ceiling fluorescent luminaire 1.0 (default 1.0) 0.50 to 0.57 (default 0.53)
Power Adjustment Factors (PAF)
Applicability All projects
Definition Automatic controls that are not already required by the baseline standard and which reduce lighting power more or less uniformly over the day can be modeled as power adjustment factors. Power adjustment factors represent the percent reduction in lighting power that will approximate the effect of the control. Models account for such controls by adjusting the installed power by (1 – PAF). 
The types of controls that are recognized for credit are listed in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, Appendix G, Table G3.2 and shown below in [bookref id="power-adjustment-factors"].
Units List: control types (see above) linked to PAFs
Input Restrictions As designed
Baseline Rules PAF is zero

[table title="Power Adjustment Factors" id="power-adjustment-factors"]

Automatic Control Device Non-24-hour occupied buildings that are less than 5,000 ft² Other buildings
Programmable timing control 10% 0%
Occupant sensor 15% 10%
Occupant sensor and programmable timing controls 15% 10%
Bi-level parking garage controls1 30% 30%
Bi-level controls in hotel corridors 20% 20%
Scene controller with timeclock 20% 20%
  • 1. Bi-level Smart LED Parking Garage Lighting, Public Interest Energy Research Program IOU Partnership Draft-Case Study
    http://cltc.ucdavis.edu/images/_projects/demonstration/bi_level_smart_led_parking_garage_lighting/pier_demo_uc_csu_bi_level_smart_led_parking_garage_lighting.pdf